Workplace Bullying and Harassment: What’s the Difference?

Workplace Bullying and Harassment: What’s the Difference?

By: Lisa Nagele-Piazza
March 8, 2018
HR Magazine

Workplace civility policies can cover both unlawful and inappropriate conduct

As HR professionals strive to ensure a safe and inclusive workplace for everyone, they should note that some harmful bullying behaviors that aren’t technically unlawful harassment can still be addressed in a workplace civility policy.

An employer’s policies can be more protective of employees than the law can, said Ann Fromholz, an attorney with The Fromholz Firm in Pasadena, Calif. “If having a workplace free from bullying is important to employers, they can go a long way to achieving that by modeling behavior, having a good policy and enforcing that policy.”

What Is Bullying?

Bullying is generally defined as unwelcome behavior that occurs over a period of time and is meant to harm someone who feels powerless to respond.

Verbal bullying includes teasing and threatening to cause harm, according to stopbullying.gov, a website managed by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.

Social bullying in the workplace might happen by leaving someone out of a meeting on purpose or publicly reprimanding someone.

A 2017 survey by the Workplace Bullying Institute estimated that 61 percent of U.S. employees are aware of abusive conduct in the workplace, 19 percent have experienced it and another 19 percent have witnessed it.

These behaviors may or may not constitute unlawful harassment. Bullying is actionable under federal law only when the basis for it is tied to a protected category, such as race or sex, explained Jessica Westerman, an attorney with Katz, Marshall & Banks in Washington, D.C. Specifically, Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibits harassment on the basis of color, national origin, race, religion and sex. Other federal laws prohibit such behavior on the basis of age, disability and genetic information.

Additionally, if bullying amounts to some other civil or criminal wrong, such as assault or battery, it could amount to a claim under state law, Fromholz noted.

So a manager who is mean to everyone—who is sometimes known as the “equal opportunity harasser”—might not be engaging in unlawful conduct. But that doesn’t mean it must be tolerated in the workplace.

“Employers can have codes of conduct that address respect in the workplace and hold employees accountable if they do not treat others with respect,” Fromholz said.

State Law Trends

“In the absence of federal legislation prohibiting generic workplace bullying, several states are considering legislation that would provide severely bullied employees with a claim for damages if they can prove that they suffered mental or physical harm as a result of the bullying,” Westerman said.

Legislatures in 29 states have introduced workplace anti-bullying bills in recent years, according to the Healthy Workplace Campaign.

For example, S.B. 1013, a bill that was introduced in Massachusetts in 2017, would prohibit all “abusive conduct” against employees—even if it isn’t based on a protected characteristic.

Since Jan. 1, 2015, California businesses have been required to train supervisors on how to identify abusive conduct as part of their sexual harassment prevention training. “So far, however, there is no private right of action for bullying in the workplace,” Fromholz noted.

HR’s Role

Even without a law against general bullying, employers can create policies and practices to prevent and prohibit such behavior. Westerman suggests that employers:

  • Conduct a climate survey to learn about the problems in their particular workplace and use the survey’s findings to tailor policies and procedures to that workplace.
  • Adopt clear, written anti-bullying policies in as many languages as are spoken in the workplace.
  • Foster an organizational culture that prioritizes inclusion and doesn’t tolerate bullying by regularly demonstrating a commitment to anti-bullying policies.
  • Conduct bystander intervention training, which empowers co-workers to intervene when they witness bullying or harassing behavior. This “helps create a sense of collective responsibility for eliminating bullying and other problematic behavior in the workplace,” Westerman said.
  • Conduct workplace civility training, which may reduce the likelihood that bullying will occur by promoting respect among employees from different backgrounds and at different job levels.
  • Implement clear and straightforward procedures so that employees know how and where to report incidents. These procedures should include multiple confidential reporting channels.
  • Make an effort to maintain employees’ confidentiality throughout the investigation. If employees need to be identified, investigators should notify employees about the possibility that co-workers will learn about their complaints.

Workers who are victims of bullying or harassment should know they can promptly report incidents to their supervisors, management-level employees, human resource representatives or other employees designated to receive reports, Westerman said.

When Hollywood Offspring Land Industry Internships: “There’s a Pay-It-Forward Expectation”

When Hollywood Offspring Land Industry Internships: “There’s a Pay-It-Forward Expectation”

By: Bryn Elise Sandberg
The Hollywood Reporter
December 20, 2017

Hollywood felt pretty self-satisfied when Malia Obama famously interned on the set of HBO’s Girls in summer 2015 and then later at The Weinstein Co. (pre-Harvey scandal, of course). But generally, when powerful kids leverage their family name to get a foot in the door, the company tries to keep it quiet, as when Vice President Mike Pence’s daughter was welcomed in UTA’s agent trainee program this fall (she since has been promoted to full-time assistant).

Meanwhile, Tom Hanks’ youngest son, Truman Hanks, a student at Stanford, has secured a coveted internship at Bad Robot the past two summers, where he’s served as a production assistant on various J.J. Abrams film shoots. The twin daughters of NBC Entertainment’s Jennifer Salke and Fox 21 Television Studios’ Bert Salke interned at WME this summer; Fox Television Group chairman and CEO Dana Walden’s 17-year-old daughter spent the past two summers interning for Ryan Murphy and then 3 Arts manager Oly Obst; and former NBC Broadcasting chairman Ted Harbert’s daughter worked on the desk of Lionsgate TV Group president Sandra Stern. And in some cases, the road to a job can be as short as the family breakfast table. David Kohan’s daughter and Max Mutchnick’s niece are production assistants on the new season of their show Will & Grace.

There’s no law that prevents you (or your boss) from hiring a favorite son or niece. That’s true for any private entity (unlike the public sector). So it’s up to the company. “There are plenty of companies, Donald Trump’s among them, that do not have any sort of nepotism policies,” says employment attorney Ann Fromholz. “And some appear to make nepotism a practice.”

Still, aware of the optics and pitfalls, many Hollywood entities engage someone like Fromholz to address nepotism in their corporate guidelines. “I don’t necessarily recommend a total prohibition,” she says. “Most companies are sizable enough that you can separate the people who are related to each other.”

Still, those running Hollywood’s most coveted internship programs insist the practice of industry veterans opening doors for powerful progeny is overstated. “Look, I’m not going to tell you that there’s never a situation where there’s somebody important that we do business with where we’re not going to squint hard at the résumé to let their kid in,” says an individual with one agency program, adding that an estimated 20 percent of applicants come from showbiz families. “But most of the time, these candidates are very well-qualified.”

Take Ellie Monahan, the 26-year-old daughter of Katie Couric. She interned for HBO for four months during the summer of 2012 while still at Yale. Sources say she worked harder than everyone else at the cable network and is remembered as one of best interns the program has ever had. Monahan has since lined her résumé with more film and TV gigs: She went on to study screenwriting at AFI, then worked with Shawn Ryan on The Get Down before landing her current job as a writers’ assistant on Amazon’s new superhero drama The Boys. She’s hardly anyone’s idea of a favor hire.

“There’s something of a pay-it-forward expectation,” says a former staffer at Vanity Fair, where many Hollywood kids have spent a New York summer, including Carson Meyer (daughter of Ron), Jessica Springsteen (daughter of Bruce) and Angelica Zollo (daughter of Barbara Broccoli). “If I help your kid, maybe you’ll help me or my kid down the road. If the person ends up being a good, smart, hard-working intern without attitude, that’s just a total bonus.”

Let’s Talk About Sex

Let’s Talk About Sex

“Yo, I don’t think we should talk about this
(Come on, why not?)
People might misunderstand what we’re tryin’ to say, you know?
(No, but that’s a part of life)”
– Salt-n-Pepa

The rash of sexual harassment accusations and related resignations and firings of high profile people (and, we can presume, lower profile people) raises yet again the question of when and whether people can talk about sex or engage in other raunchy talk in the workplace.

Should you talk about sex in the workplace? Of course!*

If you work for a company that sells sex, go right ahead and talk about sex in the workplace. Provided, of course, that you are talking about your company’s business, or its products, or otherwise doing something that’s required by your job.

Some years ago, I did work for a men’s magazine that featured articles and photographs that were sexually charged. (Sex sells, after all.) The photo editor told me, “I yell down the hall, ‘I need more boobs!'” She wanted to know if that was ok, or if she was engaging in sexual harassment.

I told her that, if she was saying she needed more cleavage in the photos, this was ok. If, however, she was talking about herself or something personal, it was not.

Here in Los Angeles, there is a company (actually there are a few) that produces print and video featuring naked women. The walls of the company’s office are adorned with photos from the magazines. The magazines themselves are in the lobby waiting area and in employees’ offices. Does the presence of that many pictures of nude women create a unlawfully hostile work environment? My answer to that question is no. The photos on the walls and the magazines on tables and desks are the company’s product. Conversations about the photos and magazines that are limited to work topics also would be ok. But the moment that an employee starts to talk about their personal sexual attraction to one of the models, or what they might hope to do with that model, the conversation crosses the line to one the creates an unlawful hostile environment based on sex.

The California Supreme Court decided this issue eleven years ago, in Lyle v. Warner Brothers Television Prods. Lyle was a writers’ assistant on the show “Friends.” The Court held that, the “Friends” writers’ room was a workplace where writers were paid to create adult-themed sexual humor and jokes. The court characterized the “Friends” writers’ room as a “creative workplace focused on generating scripts for an adult-oriented comedy show featuring sexual themes.” Therefore, the Court held that sexual talk in the context of brainstorming about and writing scripts — i.e., in the work done in the writers’ room — did not amount to unlawful sexual harassment.

So, if you write for a show that has sexual themes, or if you work for a magazine that features naked women (or men), if you work on the set of a movie with sexual content, go ahead and talk about sex if, and only, if you are talking about it in the context of your job.

But if you work at a bank, or a law firm**, or an energy company, or a hospital, or a restaurant (and so on and so on), there probably is not a situation where you can talk about sex without risking creating an unlawfully hostile environment.

*This blog is for entertainment purposes only and should not be construed as legal advice or offering a legal conclusion.
**Employment lawyers and HR people get to talk about sex every day. So, if you have an overwhelming desire to talk about sex, those are the careers for you.

The Fish Stinks From the Head

The Fish Stinks From the Head

A number of years ago, I attended the holiday party of the firm where I worked at the time. The firm’s management committee met in Los Angeles that week, so all of the members of the executive committee attended the holiday party. Talk about awkward.

It was Friday night and I was tired from a long week of working on various harassment and discrimination lawsuits. I decided to leave the party early and said goodbye to the friends and colleagues around me. In that group was a member of the executive committee, who was from another office and whom I had never met before. He asked for a ride back to his hotel. I said, “Sure”, because his hotel was on my way back to the freeway, and because it did not occur to me that he would do anything inappropriate. Our office did not have that kind of culture.

Apparently, his office did. Or at least he did. As I drove toward the hotel, I asked where the entrance was. He pointed to the parking lot and said, “Well, you can park there if you want to come up to my room.” I laughed. Was I nervous? Was I trying to play it off as a joke? I’m not sure. I know that I managed to convey that wasn’t going to happen. I dropped him at the entrance and got home without incident.

The next day, I went to talk to my best friend in the office. He had made partner earlier that year. I told him what happened and, without hesitation, he said, “You have to tell [the managing partner].” I told him I did not want to. He said that if I did not, he would.

So, later that day, I knocked on the door of the managing partner. “Can I talk to you?” I asked. I was incredibly nervous. I really did not want to tell him. But my sister once told me that, in difficult situations like this, you should just start talking and momentum will take over. She’s right.

I told the managing partner about the creepy member of the executive committee. His reaction surprised me, in the best possible way. The first word he said? “Shit.” And then he said, “The fish stinks from the head.” I knew what he meant: if there are bad actors at the top, it ruins the rest of the organization. He had worked so hard to make sure there was no such stink in our office. And he was dismayed that such a stink had affected one of his lawyers.

I don’t know what the firm did, but I know that I never had to interact with that executive committee member again. I also know that my complaint had no adverse impact on my career. I have every faith that the managing partner of our office put the fear of god into him and anyone else who might disrupt the harmony of our office.

Keeping a workplace free from harassment requires good policies, procedures, and training. But those things cannot alone create a safe and productive workplace. The leadership must be dedicated to creating, cultivating, and protecting a harassment-free workplace, and to taking prompt action when even the slightest hint of harassment occurs.

High Court Docket: Unions, Overtime

High Court Docket: Unions, Overtime

By: Carol Patton
This article was originally published by Human Resource Executive on December 6, 2017

The Supreme Court’s decisions on two upcoming employment-law cases could end up weakening organized labor and impacting overtime for some workers, legal experts say.

Legal experts say the Supreme Court’s upcoming decisions in two employment-law cases involve a pair of hot-button topics: labor unions and overtime.

The first case, Janus v. American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees, Council 31, challenges the constitutionality of public employees being forced to pay union dues even if they don’t support or join unions. The other case, Encino Motorcars, LLC v Navarro, focuses on whether service advisors at auto dealerships are exempt from overtime.

The plaintiff in the first case, a public-sector worker, refused to join the union but was still required to pay 84 percent of full members’ dues, which excludes fees for the union’s political activities, says employment-law attorney Ann Fromholz, founder of The Frumholz Firm in Pasadena, Calif.

“Employees have the right to decide whether to join the union and can be required to pay a fee even if they elect not to be a member,” she says. “There’s no doubt in my mind that the Supreme Court will rule in favor of the worker and against the union. This could be a big blow for public employee unions.”

This isn’t surprising considering that Justice Gorsuch, who filled Justice Scalia’s seat following his sudden death, is likely to support his predecessor’s conservative views.

If the high court rules in favor of workers, Fromholz says, union membership may dwindle, resulting in less dues and power to negotiate contracts. Such a decision could also create HR quagmires as well. For example, if a union negotiates worker benefits that would not have been otherwise offered, should nonunion members receive those same benefits? Likewise, would nonunion employees be required to pay a portion of their health insurance premiums while employers pay the entire premium for union workers?

“It’s hard to say [if this is fair] because employees do benefit from the work of unions,” says Fromholz. “If there are environments where the union is weak and doesn’t negotiate much beyond what the employee would get, it’s probably not overly fair to ask everyone to contribute.”

Other HR problems would involve worker protections, she says. For example, union employees can only be fired for cause and must receive progressive discipline before termination. However, nonunion employees at the same workplace would be employed at will and not guaranteed those same rights.

This sets the stage for possible instances of inequity, says Fromholz, and opens the door for employers to scale back benefits to ensure consistency between the two employee groups.

“Workers may be unhappy if those protections are stripped away,” she says, adding that benefits such as retirement, however, would remain intact. “That would be an issue HR would need to manage.”

Regarding the second employment-law case, Encino Motorcars, LLC v. Navarro, the U.S. Supreme Court in June rejected a 2011 final rule issued by the U.S. Department of Labor that stated that service advisors at auto dealerships are not exempt from overtime. This final rule contradicted DOL’s 1978 opinion letter, which concluded that service advisors (along with salesmen, partsmen or mechanics, according to the Fair Labor Standards Act) were exempt from overtime.
Initially, the district court dismissed this case on the grounds that service advisors were “functionally equivalent to salesmen, partsmen and mechanics,” says Lee Schreter, an attorney and co-chair of the national wage and hour practice at Littler Mendelson in Atlanta.

Since then, she says, the case has bounced between the Ninth Circuit, which deferred to the DOL’s latest interpretation and unanimously rejected the lower court’s decision, and the U.S. Supreme Court, which reversed the Ninth Circuit’s decision, finding that the DOL’s explanation for departing from the interpretation it had followed for nearly 40 years was inadequate. The case was remanded back to the Ninth Circuit, which not only upheld its decision but also opposes previous rulings made by the Fourth and Fifth Circuits and Supreme Court of Montana. Due to the courts’ disagreements, the case is back in the hands of the Supreme Court.

Ironically, Schreter says, the DOL’s “flip-flopping” won’t help service advisors, because employers can still prevent them from working overtime, reduce their hourly rate to compensate for overtime expenses or put them on commission.
“No good comes from a federal agency having dramatic swings in its interpretation of the law,” says Schreter. “It becomes very hard to comply when you have dramatic swings from one administration to the next [and] makes it very difficult for employers and employees because you don’t have settled expectations.”

Robert Brock, an attorney at the law office of Lowell J. Kuvin in Miami, supports the Ninth Circuit’s opinion but believes the U.S. Supreme Court’s decision will swing the other way. As, he says the Ninth Circuit’s persuasive argument is based on historic records dating back to ground zero for the statute.

Making service advisors exempt would be a stretch, he says, signaling a broadening of exemptions even though exemptions are supposed to be construed narrowly.

But if this occurs, he says HR professionals at auto dealerships need to review nonexempt, even borderline exempt positions.

“If there is a broadening of the construction of statutory exemptions for overtime, that’s going to affect a lot of gray area positions throughout the country,” he says. “If that happens, we’ll see more of it in the future, a loosening of the narrow construction.”

Here’s how to help if you witness sexual harassment at work

Here’s how to help if you witness sexual harassment at work

By: Meera Jagannathan, Moneyish

The most effective thing to do, one employment lawyer says, is to take contemporaneous notes.

The bystander effect is real: For instance, ousted NBC anchor Matt Lauer’s alleged sexual misconduct was “not a secret among other employees at ‘Today,’” several unnamed sources told Variety. And 16 former and current employees of Harvey Weinstein’s companies told the New Yorker the disgraced mogul’s pattern of predation was “widely known within both Miramax and the Weinstein Company.”

“Harassment law does not require (a non-management employee) to report harassment that occurs toward someone else,” Pasadena employment lawyer Ann Fromholz told Moneyish. “But is it the morally correct thing to do? Sure.” The Equal Employment Opportunities Commission encouraged employers in its 2016 task force report to incorporate bystander intervention training into their harassment prevention programs.

If you decide to take action after witnessing workplace sexual harassment, here are potential ways to help. (Not all, of course, will work in every situation or with every type of person.)

Confront the harasser. Many workplace harassers don’t even understand their behavior is inappropriate, Fromholz said. If you feel you can head straight to the source without fear of retaliation, “be specific about the conduct, be specific about the fact that it’s making people uncomfortable, and be specific that it needs to stop.” Use your judgment when deciding whether to mention the name of the person being made uncomfortable, as that could “put a target on their back”: You might say “people” are uncomfortable, for example, rather than naming specific names. “Don’t frame it as a threat,” Fromholz added. “It’s just a reasonable discussion between adults.”

Run interference. To “obnoxiously prevent there being the privacy that’s necessary for a lot of sexual harassment to happen,” said employment attorney Mary Kuntz of the Washington, D.C. firm Kalijarvi, Chuzi, Newman & Fitch, you might try gatecrashing what appears to be an unwelcome seduction in the office or at a work party. “You essentially run block for someone,” she said. “You insert yourself into conversations … You go take the seat next to the person who is trying to get the young thing to sit next to him,” she said. “You essentially don’t let them have that one-on-one engagement.”

You could also throw the victim a lifeline: “Walk up to them and say, ‘Hey, do you want to go get a Diet Coke?’” Fromholz said. “In the very worst situations, where it ends up in sexual assault, there sometimes is grooming behavior from the beginning … The person who ends up assaulting will say, ‘No, no, no, she’s fine,’ … so giving that person an option, an out, is a good possibility. You can’t promise they’ll take you up on it, but you do the best you can.”

Keep in mind, warned Kuntz, that this is “a temporary Band-Aid fix”: While you can intervene when you spot the behavior, you likely won’t be around every time it occurs.

Go to a manager. If you’re a non-management worker uncomfortable approaching the harasser — due to their personality or stature within the company, perhaps — “then the best thing to do is go to somebody in some position of authority who you are comfortable with,” Fromholz said. Notifying a member of management “puts the company on notice and triggers their legal requirement to take certain action” under Title VII, EEOC sexual harassment guidelines and state law.

Talk to the victim. You may not feel comfortable approaching them; they may not feel comfortable being approached. But if you forge ahead, be sure not to retraumatize the person, Fromholz said: Speak with empathy, realize their reaction may not be what you expected, understand they may be unwilling to talk, and don’t expect their memories of the incident to be as linear as yours. You might say something to the effect of, “Hey, I saw what happened. I wasn’t comfortable with it; I’d like to talk to somebody so that it can stop; and I wanted to talk to you first.” “Unless you’re somebody who’s trained … you’re not qualified to solve their pain,” Fromholz added.

Take contemporaneous notes. “Probably the most effective thing you can do,” Kuntz said, is to record details in real time of harassment you’ve witnessed, then make yourself available to testify should your colleague file a complaint. “Memories fade over time; even over a couple of days, you forget details,” Fromholz said. “Send a text to yourself — that’s a good way of making sure you remember the details that may become important.”

“It’s testimony like that that removes Matt Lauer … You have to have people who can say, ‘No, I saw this happen,’” Kuntz said. “That corroborating testimony helps, and it can bring permanent change as opposed to just running interference one night at a party.”

Investigating When A Complaining Employee Won’t Cooperate

Investigating When A Complaining Employee Won’t Cooperate

By: Ann Fromholz
Originally published in Law360 on October 22, 2017

Earlier this year, an executive with a real estate developer alerted the company’s general counsel that comments and rumors about her sex life that were circulating throughout the company, from hourly employees and assistants to the C­suite, were so personally and professionally damaging that she was too upset to work.

The general counsel took immediate action. He called the company’s outside employment counsel, who advised that the company needed to conduct an immediate investigation into the executive’s complaints. Because no one at the company was trained or equipped in workplace investigations, the lawyer advised that the company engage an outside expert, a lawyer whose practice focuses on workplace investigations.

As the investigator, I reviewed the complainant’s demand letter and developed an
investigation plan. My first order of business was to interview the complaining employee (which is usually the case). But when I emailed and called the executive to schedule an interview, the executive did not respond. Finally, after three attempts without a response, the executive’s lawyer responded that the executive would not agree to be interviewed.

This situation happens more frequently than one might imagine. A complaining employee, who may be the only person who can provide the details of her complaints, refuses to be interviewed. The employee may refuse because her lawyer recommends that she not be interviewed, she is too nervous to be interviewed, or some other reason. Whatever the reason, the investigator then needs to determine whether and how to investigate without the complainant’s testimony.

The U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission’s existing enforcement guidance on harassment investigations requires a “prompt, thorough and impartial investigation” into complaints of workplace misconduct.[1] The guidance further provides that, “when detailed fact­finding is necessary, the investigator should interview the complainant, the alleged harasser, and third parties who could reasonably be expected to have relevant information.”

Even without an interview of the complainant, the investigator likely has enough information to determine which witnesses to interview and which questions to ask. The investigator may not know everything about the complaining party’s complaints, but likely has enough information from the initial complaint to start asking questions. The answers to those questions, from witnesses other than the complainant, will often lead to other witnesses and other questions, and eventually can provide a fairly complete picture of the situation.

The EEOC proposed “Enforcement Guidance on Unlawful Harassment” in January 2017, but that guidance is not yet final.[2] The proposed guidance provides that an investigation is effective if it is sufficiently thorough to “arrive at a reasonably fair estimate of truth.”

If, however, the investigator chooses to stop the investigation when the complaining party declines to be interviewed, the investigator risks failing in her duty to conduct a prompt, thorough and impartial investigation.

In May 2017, the California Department of Fair Employment and Housing issued new guidance for preventing and addressing workplace harassment.[3] That guidance specifically addresses the basic steps to ensure a fair workplace investigation and says that due process is the goal. The guidance provides that the investigator should interview the complaining party, “give the accused party a chance to tell his/her side of the story,” interview relevant witnesses, and review relevant documents.

The guidance also provides that the investigator “do other work that might be necessary for [her] to get all the facts,” and “reach a reasonable and fair conclusion based on the information [she] collected, reviewed and analyzed during the investigation.”

The DFEH guidance therefore makes clear that there are elements of an investigation that are as essential as the interview of the complaining party.

Once the employer is on notice of a complaint of workplace misconduct, the investigator should conduct those elements of the investigation regardless of whether the complaining party chooses to participate.
The investigator’s report will detail the efforts to interview the complaining party and will detail the other steps the investigator took to conduct a thorough and fair investigation, even without the participation of the complaining party. The report will say that the complaining party refused to be interviewed and will say that the investigator is making factual findings and drawing a conclusion without the benefit of the complaining party’s input. The investigator or the employer likely will report to the complaining party that the investigation has concluded without her involvement.

On occasion, the specter of the investigation concluding without the complaining party’s input is enough to convince an otherwise recalcitrant complainant to participate, in some fashion, in an interview.

I know of investigations where the complainant insisted on being interviewed with her lawyer present and others where the complainant agreed to respond to written questions but still refused to be interviewed. Whether to agree to those terms is a judgment call that the investigator must make, weighing the benefit of gathering facts directly from the complainant against the diminished credibility of that testimony because it was influenced or perhaps even written by the complainant’s lawyer. Of course, the report in such an investigation will reflect the relative weight that the investigator gives to the complainant’s testimony as compared to testimony from witnesses who were more forthcoming.

The reluctant or refusing complainant creates a hurdle for a workplace investigator in her path to a complete investigation that arrives at a reasonably fair estimate of the truth. But the hurdle is one that a thorough and persistent investigator can overcome, either by thorough interviews of co­workers and other witnesses and a careful review of evidence, or by allowing the complainant to participate in the interview even with restrictions mandated by the complainant’s lawyer.

The investigator’s ultimate goal is to find the facts and reach a reasoned conclusion, not to stand on ceremony regarding exactly how the complainant ought to participate.

Weinstein Scandal Widens in Hollywood

Weinstein Scandal Widens in Hollywood

By: Jake Coyle
Associated Press
October 11, 2017

As the grim scope of the allegations surrounding Harvey Weinstein continued to expand Wednesday, the organization that bestows the Academy Awards moved to distance itself from the film mogul, Ben Affleck was forced to defend his own previous actions, and scrutiny fell on who knew what about the Weinstein’s behavior over the decades it allegedly took place.

A key and potentially volatile component of Tuesday’s New Yorker expose was the claim that “a culture of complicity” has existed at both The Weinstein Co. and his previous film company, the Walt Disney-owned Miramax. “Numerous people throughout the companies (were) fully aware of his behavior but either abetting it or looking the other way,” the magazine reported.

Further scrutiny has followed the contention that Weinstein’s conduct was “an open secret” in Hollywood. Focus has turned, in part, to not just the workplace environments Weinstein operated in, but the stars who may have had some knowledge of Weinstein’s alleged behavior but who failed to raise any alarms.

Ben Affleck was called out Tuesday by actress Rose McGowan. In a tweet, McGowan accused Affleck of lying after issuing a statement that he was “saddened and angry” about the Weinstein revelations. McGowan, who The New York Times reported reached a $100,000 settlement with Weinstein in 1997, suggested Affleck knew decades ago about Weinstein’s behavior.

Actress Hilarie Burton also renewed an earlier allegation that Affleck groped her during a visit to MTV’s TRL, which she was hosting in 2003. Affleck on Wednesday tweeted an apology: “I acted inappropriately toward Ms. Burton and I sincerely apologize.”

The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences also announced Wednesday that its Board of Governors will hold a special meeting Saturday to discuss the allegations “and any actions warranted by the academy.”

Weinstein has long been a major figure at the Academy Awards, where his films have regularly won Oscars, including five best picture-winners. Weinstein personally shared in the best-picture Oscar for “Shakespeare in Love.” The film academy called Weinstein’s alleged conduct “repugnant” and “antithetical to the high standards of the Academy and the creative community it represents.”

The ongoing fallout poses potentially severe legal issues for the companies involved. The Weinstein Co., which fired its co-chairman on Sunday, has moved to continue forward with plans to change its name. In a statement Tuesday night, the Weinstein Co. board of directors strongly denied that it knew about Weinstein’s behavior.

“These alleged actions are antithetical to human decency. These allegations come as an utter surprise to the board. Any suggestion that the board had knowledge of this conduct is false,” the four-member board said in a statement. “We are committed to assisting with our full energies in all criminal or other investigations of these alleged acts, while pursuing justice for the victims and a full and independent investigation of our own.”

The board, however, includes Weinstein’s brother, Bob, the company’s other co-chairman. And several board members earlier resigned in the wake of the initial allegations of sexual harassment. That report, published Thursday by the New York Times, also detailed hundreds of thousands of dollars in alleged settlements. It’s not known if Weinstein made the payments personally or if either The Weinstein Co. or Miramax did.

Legal experts are skeptical The Weinstein Co. could have been unaware given the volume of allegations.

“Given all the information that’s coming out now, I would find it highly implausible that the board was not aware,” said Angela Reddock-Wright, an attorney specializing in employment and labor law who has represented businesses in harassment suits. “There are just too many allegations here. Unless there were settlements paid out by Weinstein from his own personal money, settlements over a certain dollar value would have presumably been approved by the board of directors.”

Veteran employment attorney Ann Fromholz said that given Weinstein’s position at the company, The Weinstein Co. would be liable over sexual harassment claims even if they weren’t aware. Between the potential lawsuits and the likely loss of business, Fromholz considers it unlikely The Weinstein Co. will survive under any name.

Representatives for both companies didn’t respond to questions.

On Tuesday, Michael Eisner, who was Disney’s chief executive during Harvey Weinstein’s tenure at Miramax, said he “had no idea he was capable of these horrible actions.” Disney purchased Miramax in 1993; the Weinstein brothers departed in 2005 to create the Weinstein Co.

“Fired (the) Weinsteins because they were irresponsible, and Harvey was an incorrigible bully,” said Eisner on Twitter.